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Structural characteristics and working principle of LED solar street lamp

Jul. 31, 2019

Structural characteristics and working principle of LED solar street lamp

At ordinary times, most street lamps we see on the road use solar energy. LED solar street lamps use ether sunlight as energy. During the day, solar energy is used to charge the battery of the panel, and at night, the battery is used for the lamp source. The whole process is energy-saving, pollution-free, and does not require manual control. Next, zhonggang lighting will explain the principle of LED solar street lamp.

Structural characteristics and working principle of LED solar street lamp.

LED solar street lamp principle -- structure

1. Solar panels

Solar panels are the core sector of solar LED  street lamps, and also the sector with the highest value among LED solar street lamps. Its role is to convert the sun's radiation capacity into electricity, or sent to the storage battery for storage. Solar cells mainly use monocrystalline silicon as material. Single crystal silicon is used to make a p-n junction similar to the diode. It works like a diode. Only in external diodes, it is the external electric field that drives p-n hole and electron movement, while in solar cells, it is solar photons and radiant heat that drives and influences p-n hole and electron movement. This is commonly known as the photonic voljussi effect principle. Currently, the efficiency of photoelectric conversion is about 13%-15% for photovoltaic cells and 11%-13% for polysilicon. The latest technologies include photovoltaic thin film cells.

2. Solar controller

The most important link in the solar lamp system is the controller, whose function directly affects the life of the system, especially the life of the battery. Industrial grade MCU is used as the main controller of the controller. Through measuring the ambient temperature, testing and judging the voltage, current and other parameters of the battery and solar cell module, the switch on and off of MOSFET is controlled to achieve various control and protection functions.

LED solar street lamps

3. Storage battery

Because the input energy of solar photovoltaic power generation system is extremely chaotic, it is generally necessary to configure battery system to work. Generally there are lead acid batteries, ni-cd batteries, ni-h batteries. The choice of battery capacity should follow the following principles: first of all, in the conditions of night lighting can be satisfied, the energy of solar cell module during the day is stored as far as possible, and at the same time, can store the electrical energy needed for continuous cloudy and rainy night lighting. The battery capacity is too small to meet the needs of night lighting, the battery is too large, on the one hand, the battery has always been in the state of power loss, affecting the battery life, at the same time causing extravagance. The battery should be matched with the solar cell and electricity load (street lamp). A simple way to determine their relationship can be used. Solar cell power must be more than 4 times higher than the load power, the system can work properly. Solar cell voltage to exceed the battery operating voltage 20~30%, to ensure that the battery normal negative charge. The storage battery capacity must be more than 6 times higher than the daily load consumption.

4. The light source

What kind of light source is used by LED solar street lamp is an important indicator of whether the solar lamp can be used normally. The general solar lamp USES low-pressure energy-saving lamp, low-pressure sodium lamp, pole-less lamp and LED light source.

LED light source, long life, up to 1,000,000 hours, low voltage, no need for inverter, high light efficiency, domestic 50Lm/w, entrance 80Lm/w. With the improvement of technology, the function of LED will be further improved.

At present, most lawn lamps use LED as the light source, mainly using solar energy to work. When sunlight hits the solar cell during the day, it converts the energy into electricity, which is stored in the battery, which provides the LED(light-emitting diode) of the lawn lamp at night. LED energy saving, safety, long life, low working voltage, very suitable for solar lawn lights. LED technology, in particular, has experienced major breakthroughs in its hub, and its features have improved significantly over the past five years, as well as its cost ratio.


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